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Duplicant
This article has not been revised for the current version (U51-600112). It was last updated for U40-494396. It may contain inaccuracies.
This article has not been revised for the current version (U51-600112). It was last updated for U40-494396. It may contain inaccuracies.

Liquid is a state of elements.

Mechanics[ | ]

  • A Liquid is any matter in game that is not a solid entity or gas entity. Almost any material in the game will melt given a high enough temperature.
  • Liquids are affected by gravity and can flow across level floors, through open doors and down ladders.
  • A Duplicant who finds themselves submerged with no way to rise above the level of the liquid will either drown after a set period without air or will burn to death in hot liquids.
  • Liquids do not mix in tiles. Polluted water in water does not cause the clean water to become polluted, although germs may spread.
  • Elements with a lower density tends to rise above others. Mixed Liquids with different density and in sufficient amounts will form several layers after a period of time.
Liquid Stack
  • Liquids exposed to space will be destroyed, unless protected by Drywall.
  • Liquids can occupy two vertical tiles and touch the solid tile third above. Thus it is possible to make Liquid Airlock.
  • Liquids evaporate at 3 degrees above the specified vaporization point, and freeze at 3 degrees below the specified freezing point.
    • If such transformation happens inside a Liquid Pipe, the pipe will be damaged.
    • Phase change will not occur if the content of the pipe is 1kg or less.
    • If a liquid is atop any tile with a temperature exceeding a phase change temperature, it will under go a phase change. This includes tiles with virtually zero Thermal Conductivity, such as Abyssalite.
  • All liquids have a certain max mass per tile; above this limit, the liquid will "flow" to the tile above it (provided it's not a solid tile), pushing away the air in the tile. If several such liquid tiles are "stacked" atop each other, pressure will build in the bottom tiles, adding approximately 1% of the above mass to each tile. This pressure can eventually cause damage to surrounding solid tiles.
  • Liquids cannot exist in amounts smaller than 10g, unless if it's in pipes.

Pressure Damage[ | ]

Pressure Damage Cracks

Sedimentary Rock Tiles taking pressure damage from over 962kg of petroleum

Liquid tiles which accumulate too much mass (such as from depth stacking) will begin to visually crack the tiles containing them before causing pressure damage to the tile and seep through as droplets until either the tile breaks entirely (losing all materials used to construct it and allowing the liquid to flow out), the pressure is released, or the tile is reinforced with more tiles. The mass at which a tile begins to take pressure damage is dependent upon the liquid's mass per tile(that is, the maximum amount of liquid that can be put in a tile without it overflowing), the tile's strength, the type of tile, and the thickness of the wall. Walls 3 tiles or thicker are immune to pressure damage entirely if there are no pipes running through them. In addition, certain tiles are immune to pressure damage under any circumstances. Some pressure-immune tiles and buildings are airflow tiles, manual airlocks, mechanized airlocks, bunker doors, and solar panels.

The maximum pressure a liquid tile can be at before damaging its tank walls can be calculated using the following formula:

max pressure = (Liquid Mass Per Tile) * (1 + t * s * k),

where t is the thickness of the wall (either 1 or 2), s is the strength of the material (located in the solid.yaml file) making up the wall, and k is the "strength multiplier", found in the table below. It should be noted that while these formulas should give the maximum pressure a wall can withstand before taking damage, in some cases there appears to be a rounding error of less than 1kg. Therefore, it is best to ensure the tank will be dealing with pressures less than the maximum pressure, both to avoid potential rounding errors and as a matter of general caution.

Tile Modifiers (k values)
Tile Type Strength Multiplier (k values)
Natural Tile tile mass / maxMass (maxMass as defined in solid.yaml for the material)
Tile 1.50
Insulated Tile 1.00
Plastic Tile 1.00
Metal Tile 1.00
Window Tile 1.00
Bunker Tile 10.00
Carpeted Tile 1.00
Farm Tile 1.00
Hydroponic Farm 1.00
Transit Tube Crossing 1.00
Heavi-Watt Joint Plate 1.00
Heavi-Watt Conductive Joint Plate 1.00
Gantry 0.02
Common Material Strengths
Material Strength
Aluminum 1.0
Aluminum Ore 0.7
Ceramic 1.0
Clay 0.2
Copper 0.8
Copper Ore 0.7
Diamond 2.5
Dirt 0.2
Fossil 0.2
Glass 1.0
Gold 0.7
Gold Amalgam 0.8
Granite 1.5
Igneous Rock 1.0
Iron 1.0
Iron Ore 0.9
Isoresin 0.4
Lead 0.8
Mafic Rock 1.0
Niobium 0.8
Obsidian 1.0
Plastic 0.4
Sandstone 0.5
Sedimentary Rock 0.2
Steel 2.0
Thermium 0.8
Tungsten 0.9
Wolframite 0.8
Maximum Pressure Examples
Liquid Mass Per Tile
(kg/tile)
Tile Type Tile
Strength
Material Material
Strength
Max Pressure (kg)
1 tile 2 tiles
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 209370 408770
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 42000 82000
Magma Magma 1840 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 38640 75440
Brine Brine 1200 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 25200 49200
Water Water 1000 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 21000 41000
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 18270 35670
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 15540 30340
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 10500 20500
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Bunker Tile Bunker Tile 10.0 Steel Steel 2.0 2100 4100
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 24925 39880
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 5000 8000
Magma Magma 1840 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 4600 7360
Brine Brine 1200 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 3000 4800
Water Water 1000 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 2500 4000
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 2175 3480
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 1850 2960
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 1250 2000
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Tile Tile 1.5 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 250 400
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 12961 15952
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 2600 3200
Magma Magma 1840 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 2392 2944
Brine Brine 1200 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 1560 1920
Water Water 1000 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 1300 1600
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 1131 1392
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 962 1184
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 650 800
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Tile Tile 1.5 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 130 160
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 29910 49850
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 6000 10000
Magma Magma 1840 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 5520 9200
Brine Brine 1200 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 3600 6000
Water Water 1000 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 3000 5000
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 2610 4350
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 2220 3700
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 1500 2500
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Steel Steel 2.0 300 500
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 16949 23928
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 3400 4800
Magma Magma 1840 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 3128 4416
Brine Brine 1200 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 2040 2880
Water Water 1000 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 1700 2400
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 1479 2088
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 1258 1776
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 850 1200
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Metal Tile Metal Tile 1.0 Gold Gold 0.7 170 240
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 19940 29910
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 4000 6000
Magma Magma 1840 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 3680 5520
Brine Brine 1200 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 2400 3600
Water Water 1000 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 2000 3000
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 1740 2610
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 1480 2220
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 1000 1500
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Igneous Rock Igneous Rock 1.0 200 300
Molten Lead Molten Lead 9970 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 11964 13958
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide 2000 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 2400 2800
Magma Magma 1840 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 2208 2576
Brine Brine 1200 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 1440 1680
Water Water 1000 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 1200 1400
Crude Oil Crude Oil 870 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 1044 1218
Petroleum Petroleum 740 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 888 1036
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen 500 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 600 700
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel 100 Insulated Tile Insulated Tile 1.0 Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock 0.2 120 140

In general, higher strength multipliers correspond to more pressure-resistant tiles. Of course, the base material strength also plays an important role in the maximum pressure a tile can withstand. Again, note that some pressures may be off by up to 0.1kg due to rounding, so exercise caution when approaching these limits.

List of Liquids[ | ]

Ordered by density, from lightest to heaviest.

Icon Name Freezing point
[°C]
Freezes into Vaporization point
[°C]
Evaporates into SHC TC Density
[g/mol]
Thermal range [°C]
Liquid Hydrogen Liquid Hydrogen -259.15 Solid Hydrogen -252.15 Hydrogen 2.400 0.100 1.00794 7.00
Liquid Helium (unused) -273.2 -268.93 Helium 0.140 0.236 4 4.27
Visco-Gel Visco-Gel -30.65 Solid Visco Gel 479.85 Naphtha 1.550 0.450 10 449.20
Liquid Carbon Liquid Carbon 3551.85 Refined Carbon 4826.85 Gas Carbon 0.710 2.000 12.0107 1275.00
Liquid Oxygen Liquid Oxygen -218.79 Solid Oxygen -182.96 Oxygen 1.010 2.000 15.9994 35.83
Methane Methane -182.6 Solid Methane -161.5 Natural Gas 2.191 0.030 16.044 21.10
Water Water -0.65 Ice 99.35 Steam 4.179 0.609 18.01528 98.70
Polluted Water Polluted Water -20.65 Polluted Ice 119.35 Steam 4.179 0.580 20 140.00
Salt Water Salt Water -7.5 Brine 99.69 Steam 4.100 0.609 21 107.19
Brine Brine -22.5 Brine Ice 102.75 Steam 3.400 0.609 22 125.25
Brackene Brackene -16.5 Frozen Brackene 80 10% Brackwax
90% Brine
4.100 0.609 23 96.5
Liquid Phosphorus Liquid Phosphorus 44.15 Phosphorus 280.45 Gas Phosphorus 0.770 0.236 30.973762 236.30
Liquid Sulfur Liquid Sulfur 115.2 Sulfur 337 Gas Sulfur 0.700 0.200 32 221.80
Molten Salt Molten Salt 799.85 Salt 1464.85 Salt Gas 0.700 0.444 32 665.00
Liquid Chlorine Liquid Chlorine -100.98 Solid Chlorine -34.6 Chlorine 0.480 0.008 34.453 66.38
Liquid Carbon Dioxide Liquid Carbon Dioxide -56.55 Solid Carbon Dioxide -48.15 Carbon Dioxide 0.846 1.460 44.01 8.40
Liquid Propane Liquid Propane (unused) -188.2 Solid Propane -42.15 Propane 2.400 0.015 44.1 146.05
Ethanol Ethanol -114.05 Solid Ethanol 78.35 Gas Ethanol 2.460 0.171 46.07 222.40
Magma Magma 1409.85 Igneous Rock 2356.85 Rock Gas 1.000 1.000 50 947.00
Molten Glass Molten Glass 1126.85 Glass 2356.85 Rock Gas 0.200 1.000 50 1230.00
Liquid Resin Liquid Resin 20 Resin 125 25% Isoresin
75% Steam
1.100 0.150 52.5 105.00
Liquid Iron Liquid Iron 1534.85 Iron 2749.85 Gas Iron 0.449 4.000 55.845 1215.00
Molten Aluminum Molten Aluminum 660.3 Aluminum 2470 Aluminum Gas 0.910 20.500 55.845 1809.70
Liquid Cobalt Liquid Cobalt 1494.9 Cobalt 2926.9 Gas Cobalt 0.420 4.000 58.9 1432
Liquid Copper Liquid Copper 1083.85 Copper 2560.85 Gas Copper 0.386 12.000 63.546 1477.00
Liquid Steel Liquid Steel 1083.85 Steel 3826.85 Gas Steel 0.386 80.000 63.546 2743.00
Petroleum Petroleum -57.15 Solid Petroleum 538.85 Sour Gas 1.760 2.000 82.2 596.00
Liquid Niobium Liquid Niobium 2476.85 Niobium 4743.85 Gas Niobium 0.265 54.000 92.9 2267.00
Naphtha Naphtha -50.15 Solid Naphtha 538.85 Sour Gas 2.191 0.200 102.2 589.00
Nuclear Waste Nuclear Waste 26.9 Solid Nuclear Waste 526.9 Nuclear Fallout 7.440 6.000 150 500
Liquid Tungsten Liquid Tungsten 3421.85 Tungsten 5929.85 Gas Tungsten 0.134 4.000 183.84 2508.00
Liquid Gold Liquid Gold 1063.85 Gold 2855.85 Gas Gold 0.129 6.000 196.966569 1792.00
Molten Lead Molten Lead 327.5 Lead 1749 Gas Lead 0.128 11.000 196.966569 1421.50
Mercury (unused) -38.8 Solid Mercury 356.75 Gas Mercury 0.140 8.300 200.59 395.55
Liquid Uranium Liquid Uranium 132.9 Depleted Uranium 4131.9 Rock Gas 1.690 2.000 238.02 3999
Super Coolant Super Coolant -271.15 Solid Super Coolant 436.85 Gas Super Coolant 8.440 9.460 250 708.00
Crude Oil Crude Oil -40.15 Solid Crude Oil 399.85 Petroleum 1.690 2.000 500 440.00
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